Creative Stoke

The E-BNR aims to build a comprehensive & unique cross-artform guide to the British neo-Romantic tradition, from 1880 to the present day.

While the British Romantics of 1789-1824 have spawned a vast industry of publishers, conferences & tourism, the later neo-Romantic traditions remain largely neglected. The E-BNR is aimed at bringing this hidden tradition to light.

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  Neo-Romantic artists have drawn their inspiration   from artists of the age of Romanticism or earlier.   Characteristic themes in their work include a   mystical approach to the British landscape...

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  This is the online   Encyclopedia-BNR,   version 0.5 beta.

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George Macdonald.
Lewis Carroll.
John Ruskin.
Christina Rosetti.
Rudyard Kipling.
William Morris.
Richard Jefferies.
Edward Carpenter.
Kenneth Grahame.
Arthur Machen.
Algernon Blackwood.


G.M. Hopkins.
W.B. Yeats.
A.E. Housman
Laurence Binyon.


Gustav Holst.
Vaughan Williams.
Edward Elgar.
Granville Bantock.


Edward Burne-Jones.
Maxwell Armfield.
Mark Symons.
John Duncan.
George Henry.
  & Edward Atkinson

Gerald Moira.
Robert Bateman.
Samuel Palmer.
Walter Crane.
Edward Robert Hughes.
Bernard Sleigh.
Eleanor Fortescue

Nathaniel Sparks.
F.C. Robinson.
Reginald Hallward.
Laurence Housman.
James Joshua Guthrie.
Paul Nash.
Charles Mahoney.
Arthur Rackham.
Thomas Cooper Gotch.
Christopher Wood.


Aesthetic movement.
Birmingham Group.
Neo-gothic architecture.
Fairy & ghost photos.

1920s - 'places to hide':

Ballet design.
Book illustration.
The Kibbo Kift.



John Cowper Powys.
J.R.R. Tolkien.
Mervyn Peake.
C.S. Lewis.
Daphne du Maurier.
Mary Webb.
Herbert Read.
Forrest Reid
T.H. White.
Hugh Walpole.


Robert Graves.
Rev. Francis Kilvert.
Geoffrey Grigson.
Bill Brandt.
Roger Mayne.
John Deakin.
Nikolaus Pevsner.


Arnold Bax.
Vaughan Williams.


John Piper.
John Craxton.
John Minton.
David Jones.
Graham Sutherland.
Stanley Spencer.
Eric Ravilious.
Ralph Chubb.
Charles Mahoney.
Michael Ayrton.
Thomas Monnington.


Dylan Thomas.
Edwin Smith.
Ithell Colquhoun.
Francis Berry.
George Barker.
Laurence Whistler.


Humphrey Jennings.
Powell & Pressburger.
David Lean.
Epic British film music.







Neo-Romanticism is a broad tendency in the arts. It is not limited to the British Isles, and can be found in other nations. The high-art mode has been particularly strong in Eastern Europe, while a vigourous pop-culture hybrid form has grown up in symbiosis with Japanese culture.

The neo-Romantic arts may share some or many of the following characteristics:-

  • a strong interest in archetypes, myth, often outside (or perhaps at the heretical edges of) traditional religion.

  • cultivation of a "natural supernaturalist" experience - experiencing an other-worldly immanence through the bringing-to-bear of inner experience upon the world of nature.

  • cultivation of a mystical/visionary sense of homeland in the British landscape, usually a rural or garden landscape.

  • cultivation of a "sense of place", often through cherishing the history-in-landscape elements.

  • a longing for perfect love, youthful beauty and innocence.

  • an interest in arcadian or transfigured landscapes, nature reclaiming ruins.

  • an interest in the 'outsider' hero, and romantic death.

  • distrustful of ideological or theoretical ways of comprehending art.

  • trusting of human intuition and dreams, acknowledging that being human is about desire and fantasy as much as reason.

  • loyalty to a traditional English way of life. Neo-romanticism has tended to shed, somewhat, the emphasis of Romanticism on 'the hero' and a Byronic romantic nationalism.

  • venerating the romantic past, while having the ability to think intelligently and creatively about the past, and thus to consider how it might be re-presented or re-imagined through the arts. (Thus going beyond static and curatorial 'folk-ism', that which merely names and pickles the past).

  • at its gloomier fringes, neo-Romanticism can blur into goth darkness & a rudderless aesthetic decadence. A pertinent criticism of neo-Romanticism is that it tends to lack an adequate conception of evil in the modern world.

  • one can also note a close correlation between sexual non-conformity and the exploration and uses of the modes of neo-romanticism.





    Leslie Hurry.
    Robin Tanner.
    Ceri Richards.
    Michael Ayrton.

      Classical music:

    Havergal Brian.
    Benjamin Britten.


    Dylan Thomas   (reputation).
    Vernon Watkins.
    Ted Hughes.
    Christopher Logue.
    Keith Vaughan.
    Ore magazine.
    Eric Ratcliffe.
    Edwin Morgan.
    Roland Mathias.


    Laurie Lee.
    Alan Garner.
    John Gordon.


    Laurie Lee.
    E.P. Thompson.
    J.A. Baker.
    Geoffrey Grigson.



    Fay Godwin.
    James Ravilious.
    Raymond Moore.
    Andy Goldsworthy.

      Popular music:

    Robert Wyatt.
    Syd Barrett.
    Marc Bolan.
    John Foxx.
    Throbbing Gristle.
    Genesis P. Orridge.
    The Dancing Did.
    Virginia Astley.
    Brian Eno.
    Roger Eno.

      Classical music:

    Dave Heath.


    Clifford Harper.


    Derek Jarman.
    David Rudkin.


    Vivienne Westwood.


    Angela Carter.
    Ted Hughes.
    Peter Ackroyd.
    Heathcote Williams.
    Keith Roberts.
    Richard Cowper.
    Robert Holdstock.
    Susan Cooper.


    Kathleen Raine.
    Roland Mathias.
    Gwyn Thomas.
    R.S. Thomas.
    George Mackay

    Seamus Heaney.
    Pauline Stainer.


    Graham Ovenden.
    Annie Ovenden.
    Ann Arnold.
    Robert Lenkiewicz.
    John Elwyn.
    Cecil Collins.
    Ian Hamilton Finlay.
    Andrew Logan.
    Alan Reynolds.
    Norman Ackroyd.
    Christopher P. Wood.
    Jim Leon.

      Groups & circles:

    The Ruralists.
    Temenos magazine.
    Resurgence magazine.
    Crop Circles, makers.
    English Underground.

    2000 - to the present:

    Andrew Logan.
    Ian Hamilton Finlay.
    Vivienne Westwood.
    Andy Goldsworthy.
    Christopher Bucklow.
    Peter Ackroyd.
    Pauline Stainer.
    Brian Eno.
    Roger Eno.
    Jon Aldersea.
    Christopher P. Wood.
    Made in Staffordshire, England.   2007. Last updated: 18th Jan 2007. Site search by PicoSearch.
    Some of the initial E-BNR text was sourced or partly derived from Wikipedia, used here under the GNU licence.